Understanding the Impact of Substance Use Disorders on Executive Functioning
The term executive functioning is used to refer to a set of mental skills that help people plan, focus on tasks, remember details, and regulate emotions. When these skills are impaired due to an untreated substance use disorder, individuals may have difficulty making decisions, staying organized, and managing their time efficiently. In this article, the treatment team from Waypoint Recovery Center discusses what executive functioning is, how an untreated substance use disorder can affect it, and how residential addiction treatment can help.
What Is Executive Functioning?
Executive functioning skills are those which enable individuals to effectively manage their day-to-day life. Our executive functioning skills develop over time, beginning during the toddler years and continuing into early adulthood. During early childhood, we learn to pay attention when someone is speaking and remember details like an address or phone number. As we age, our executive functioning skills become more refined as we start to plan for the future and manage multiple tasks simultaneously. Our ability to set and achieve goals, make decisions, stay organized, and focus on tasks continues to develop throughout our schooling and as we enter the workforce to become self-sufficient adults.
Childhood trauma, family structure, educational opportunities, and overall mental health can all affect the development of executive functioning skills. Signs of poor executive functioning in adults often include the following:
- Poor time management. Difficulty with time management can manifest itself in many different ways. Adults with poor executive functioning may have difficulty setting deadlines for themselves or meeting deadlines set by others. They may also struggle to recognize how much time a task will take and plan accordingly. Additionally, they may have difficulty managing their own time and the time of others if they are in a leadership role.
- Struggles with organization. Adults with poor executive functioning might find it difficult to keep their workspace clean and organized or have difficulty keeping track of important documents or items. They might also struggle to prioritize tasks when faced with too many things to do at once or become easily overwhelmed by tasks that involve organizing information into categories or sequences.
- Difficulty concentrating. Adults with poor functioning might find it difficult to stay focused on one task for an extended period of time or become quickly distracted when working on complex tasks that require attention to detail. Additionally, they might struggle to complete tasks due to being easily sidetracked by unrelated thoughts or activities that seem more appealing than the task at hand.
- Impulsivity. Impulsive decisions are common among adults with poor executive functioning skills. They may struggle to consider consequences, weigh options, or think through a decision before acting.
- Unpredictable emotions. Adults with poor executive functioning may find it difficult to regulate their emotions in stressful situations, leading to outbursts of frustration or anger. This can hinder relationships and make it difficult for them to engage in productive conversations or collaborations.
How Can an Untreated Substance Use Disorder Affect Executive Functioning?
An untreated substance use disorder can cause significant impairment in executive functioning. This is due to the effects of substances on the brain, which can impair cognitive functions such as memory, decision-making, and problem-solving. Prolonged drug and alcohol use can also lead to impaired judgment and difficulty managing emotions. These issues can make it difficult to stay organized, manage tasks efficiently, and make decisions.
A person with poor executive functioning related to an untreated substance use disorder may experience the following:
- Decreased performance at work or school
- Relationship difficulties due to trouble listening and paying attention when others are speaking
- Trouble starting, planning, and organizing daily chores such as cooking means or cleaning one’s home
- Legal problems due to risky and dangerous impulsive behavior
- Feeling as though their life is spiraling out of control
Many people with substance use disorders also struggle with depression, which can create a cyclical pattern that further affects executive functioning. Continued substance abuse results in a worsening of depression symptoms, which leads to additional struggles. Problems with executive functioning can then affect self-esteem and motivation, which can leave a person feeling powerless to take steps to change their situation.
How Can Residential Addiction Treatment Help?
Residential addiction treatment is about more than simply abstaining from drug and alcohol use. Treatment can help individuals with executive functioning deficits address these issues and improve their skills. Treatment programs provide evidence-based therapies that can teach problem-solving strategies, organizational techniques, and emotional regulation. This can help individuals stay focused, manage their tasks, and make better decisions as they transition back to independent living.
At Waypoint Recovery Center, our treatment programs provide men and women with substance use disorders the ability to build the foundation for lasting sobriety in a safe and supportive environment. No matter what challenges you’ve experienced in the past, we’re here to provide the support you need to begin a future free from the burden of drug and alcohol addiction. Contact us today to learn more about what to expect from our South Carolina residential addiction treatment center.